The plant is dioecious, resulting in colonies of either all male or all female plants. Larvae bore into the main leaf vein, then down into the plant’s crown area. Disclaimer |
Research at Colorado State University shows that Tordon 22K (picloram), Milestone (aminopyralid), Transline (clopyralid), Perspective (aminocyclopyrachlor + chlorsulfuron), Banvel/ Vanquish/Clarity (dicamba), and Telar (chlorsulfuron) are effective against Canada thistle in pastures, rangeland, natural areas, and noncrop settings. Cultural control. It is less common in light, dry soils. Description. Description Canada thistle (synonyms: creeping thistle, Californian thistle, corn thistle) is a patch forming, creeping perennial with prickly, alternate, green leaves that are lance shaped and deeply lobed. Its leaves have sharp spines along the edges. Read the label, follow directions and use precautions. A flush can occur anytime during the growing season when soil moisture is adequate. Larvae burrow into shoots. Maintain fertility and, if possible, moisture at optimum levels to favor grass or alfalfa growth. Roots: Deep, creeping underground stems, or rhizomes, … Reproduces by seeds and whitish, creeping rootstocks which send up new shoots every 8 to 12 inches. Do not mow when seed is present, as that will spread the seeds. A survey conducted in 1998 showed Colorado has about 400,000 acres infested with Canada thistle. Canada thistle begins to flower in late spring to early summer in response to 14- to 16-hour days (Figures 3, 4 and 5). Canada thistle spreads rapidly through horizontal roots that give rise to large infestation patches nearby and out-competing native plants. Plants that germinate from seed do so at about the same time as root-derived shoots. Seed may be transported long distances by water, or attached to animals, clothing, farm equipment and other vehicles, and in contaminated crop seed. Revised 11/13. Apply Curtail at 2 to 3 quarts/A in October or about one month after the third mowing. The bracts do not have spines on their tips. It is distinguished from other thistles by creeping horizontal lateral roots, dense clonal growth, and dioecious habit [49,121,240].Descriptions and terminology of Canada thistle biology can be confusing or contradictory. It has slender, grooved stems. canada_thistle_cirsium_arvense_flower_072212_AR.jpg. This species was introduced to North America probably as a contaminant in seed or forage. It is native throughout Europe and northern Asia, and widely introduced elsewhere. The Canada thistle is a perennial species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae family. Amur cork tree is a 35-50 foot tall tree with spongy bark. Canada Thistle; Canada Thistle. It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Introduced perennial from Eurasia. Herbicide control of Canada thistle is most effective when you apply the herbicide in spring (April, May or June) or fall (September or October). Follow this regimen for two consecutive years. Cultivation:The preference is full sun, moist to mesic conditions, and a fertile soil consisting of clay-loam. (When we first moved here, the place was overrun with thistles. However, it is an invasive exotic weed that competes fiercely with native plants, and its presence degrades the native ecosystems it infests. Canada thistle has male and female flowers on separate plants, but the flowers look similar to each other. Canada thistle spreads by seed and an extensive root system. Plants are male or female (dioecious) and grow in circular patches that often are one clone and sex. Herbicide control can be done using a spot application with glyphosate or with the selective herbicides clopyralid or metsulfuron. Canada thistle can recover from almost any stress, including control attempts, because of root nutrient stores. It is most competitive in deep, well-aerated, productive, cool soils. PlayCleanGo: Stop Invasive Species in Your Tracks. Re-treat in fall with Banvel/Vanquish/Clarity (2 quarts/A) or Telar (1 ounce/A) to re-growth. Canada thistle is a widely distributed perennial plant that can grow up to five feet tall. Be cautious with nitrogen fertilizers, because excess available soil nitrogen may favor weed growth. 1. CSU research shows that aminocyclopyrachlor (one of the Perspective components) and aminopyralid (Milestone) are absorbed primarily by the root system. Our physical location is 1311 College Ave, Fort Collins, CO. Having website issues? Canada Thistle can grow in Other Names: Creeping thistle, perennial thistle, and green thistle. One way that invasive plant seeds and fragments can spread is in soil. Biological control insects for Canada thistle are commercially available, but Canada thistle control results have been variable and the insects' impacts on native thistles have not been thoroughly tested. Each plant has a fibrous taproot with wide spreading horizontal roots. creeping thistle. Introduced into the United States around 1750. Learn more about us or about our partners. Report a Sighting. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is native to Europe and nothern Africa, and was introduced to North America soon after the arrival of European settlers. It will not adequately establish in a well-developed Canada thistle infestation. You can prevent the spread of invasive plants. Canada thistle grows in a variety of soils and can tolerate up to 2 percent salt content. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Colorado counties cooperating. Horizontal roots may extend 15 feet or more and vertical roots may grow 6 to 15 feet deep. Stems generally do not have spines. Similar species: Canada thistle is distinguished from all other thistles by creeping lateral roots, dense clonal growth; and small dioecious flower heads (meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate plants). Mechanical control. Canada thistle seedlings develop a perennial habit (the ability to reproduce from their root systems) about seven to eight weeks after germination. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. Canada thistle is an aggressive weed that can be found growing in gardens and lawns throughout the United States. Take care to remove as much of the root as possible. Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.Prickles can also occur all over the plant – on the stem and on the flat parts of the leaves. Soil analysis can easily determine fertility needs. *Colorado State University Extension weed science specialist and professor, bioagricultural sciences and pest management. Spring burns in April through June are most detrimental to Canada thistle, but also stimulate Canada thistle seed germination so follow up monitoring is needed. Privacy Statement |
CSU Horticulture Agents and Specialists Blog, Capric Acid: A Promising Next-Generation Herbicide for Organic Specialty Crop Production, Columnar and Fastigiate Trees for CO Landscapes, Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) on Irrigated Pasture, Pulse Crops and their Key Role as Staple Foods in Healthful Eating Patterns, Integrated Hive Management for Colorado Beekeepers, Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) and Soil Health, Fall applications consistent results; may need re-treatment 1 to 2 years, Spring at pre-flower-bud growth stage; or fall, Use higher rate for older or dense stands; Milestone may be used to edge of ponds or streams; may need re-treatment 1 to 2 years, Spring after all shoots have emerged, rosette to early bud growth stages; or fall, Apply 1 pint/A or more in fall; may need re-treatment 1 to 3 years, Spring rosette to flower bud growth stage; or fall, Use with a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v, Spring bolting to bud growth stages; or fall, Fall applications most consistent results; essential to use non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v; may need retreatment 1 to 2 years, Fall applications most consistent results; may need re-treatment 2 to 4 years. Once Canada thistle has established, it spreads quickly, replacing native plants and decreasing diversity. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. CSU Extension programs are available to all without discrimination. Other Names: chardon des champs, Canadian thistle, Creeping thistle, Field thistle, chardon du Canada Family: Composite or Aster Family ( Compositae ) General Description: Perennial, reproducing by seed and by horizontal roots which produce new shoots, often forming dense patches. Wildflowers Of WisconsinWild… Mowing at hay cutting stimulates new Canada thistle shoots to develop from its root system. Colorado State University data also indicates that Banvel/Vanquish/Clarity or Telar are effective when combined with 2,4-D as a split-season application. Canada thistle has small seeds with feathery, white tufts to help with wind dispersal, although research has found that most seeds land near the parent plant. The female lays eggs on the underneath side of Canada thistle leaves in early spring. Canada thistle is naturalized in 58 of the 88 counties in Ohio. This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Report new occurrences by submitting a report through EDDMapS Midwest, emailing Arrest The Pest, calling Arrest the Pest (1-888-545-6684), or contacting your local county agricultural inspector. DNR RESPONSE TO COVID-19: For details on adjustments to DNR services, visit this webpage. Canada thistle is a perennial thistle that grows 1.5-5 ft. tall, and is distinguished from other thistles by its extensive lateral root system, dense clonal growth, and by having male and female flower heads on separate plants. Vegetative Characteristics A mature Canada Thistle … Clusters of tiny pink/purple flowers make up the flower heads. Additionally no transportation, propagation, or sale is allowed. Mechanical control can be done by repeated hand pulling or using a tool such as shovel. Wherever you live, Extension’s job is to determine what issues, concerns and needs are unique to each community, and offer sound and effective solutions. Research at Colorado State University shows that the performance of Curtail to control Canada thistle can be improved when preceded by two or three mow¬ings. Emergence. Flowering occurs late spring into summer in response to … Use a surfactant (0.25 percent to 0.5 percent v/v; equivalent to 1 to 2 quarts of surfactant per 100 gallons of spray solution) with Telar for adequate control. Canada Thistle a.k.a. Urophora cardui is another biocontrol insect available from the Colorado Department of Agriculture. Curtail is clopyralid plus 2,4-D and is effective on Canada thistle but control tends to be less than from Transline. Leaves are alternate (come off the stem one at time at each leaf node). Canada thistle grows in a variety of habitats with full or partial sun and is often found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, trails, pastures, and recently flooded areas. Canada thistle grows in a variety of habitats with full or partial sun and is often found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, trails, pastures, and recently flooded areas. Scientific Name: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. CSU A-Z Search
Biological control. Height to 4 ft. Foliage irregularly and sharply lobed; margins with short spines. New shoots and roots can form almost anywhere along the root system of established plants (Figure 6). is a colony-forming perennial. Today Canada thistle is found throughout the Midwest and in all Minnesota counties. Mowing hay meadows can be an effective tool if combined with herbicide treatments. Equal Opportunity |
Generally, infestations start on disturbed ground, including ditch banks, overgrazed pastures, tilled fields or abandoned sites. Description. Also, wind may help disperse seed, but most often, the feathery pappus breaks off, leaving the seed attached to the parent plant to be dispersed by other means. It also invades wet areas with fluctuating water levels such as streambanks, sedge meadows, and wet prairies. Please click hereto see a distribution map of Canada thistle in Washington. Canada thistle is difficult to control and re-treatment for one to three or more years after the initial application is common. Please use our website feedback form. Seed can remain viable in soil up to 22 years, and deep burial promotes survival longevity. Seedlings: Cotyledons are oval to round and pale green in color. Non-Discrimination Statement |
Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a creeping perennial that can spread by either seed or rhizomes (underground, horizontal stems). Small root pieces, 0.25 inch long by 0.125 inch in diameter, have enough stored energy to develop new plants. Refer to Table 1 for use rates and application timing and always read the herbicide label before using the product. This thistle is also commonly known as the creeping thistle and field thistle. Ceutorhyncus litura is a weevil currently used as a biocontrol agent in Colorado. Canada thistle reduces forage consumption in pastures and rangeland because cattle typically will not graze near infestations. Compound pink to purple flowers in clusters; smaller than other thistles; flowers June to August. 3. Canada thistle allocates most of its reproductive energy into vegetative propagation. Canada thistle is a non-native perennial forb that reproduces/spreads from seed and rhizomes. When Canada thistle infestations occur in situations where root growth would be restricted, such as habitats with high water tables, begin mowing when it is 12 to 15 inches tall. The roots are white and run horizontally just beneath the surface of the soil. Canada thistle. However, it is difficult to distinguish the two flower types based on appearance. State Noxious Weed. The key principle to Canada thistle control is to stress the plant and force it to use stored root nutrients. Their feeding triggers huge galls to form that stress the plant, sometimes killing it. Canada thistle is a widely distributed perennial plant that can grow up to five feet tall. Also, these small roots can survive at least 100 days without nutrient replenishment from photosynthesis. Combine the weevil with cultural techniques that allow for maximum desirable plant competition. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is an aggressive, creeping perennial weed that infests crops, pastures, rangeland, roadsides and noncrop areas. 2.
No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not mentioned. Female flowers produce a sweet odor and insects readily pollinate different sexed patches up to 200 feet apart. Refer to EDDMapS Distribution Maps for current distribution. We have 3 regions; Peaks and Plains, Front Range and Western. Seeds remain viable in the soil for over 20 years. Each small section of root can form a new plant, enabling the plant to spread vegetatively. Additionally, plants can spread by growing in circular patches spreading vegetatively through horizontal roots, which can spread 10 - 12 feet in one season. Plants are either male or female (dioecious) so cross pollination is necessary for seed production. Females lay eggs on apical meristems of developing shoots. Canada thistle (aka creeping thistle) is a determined weed if ever there was one. Contact your local county Extension office through our County Office List. It may produce 1,000 to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants (dioecious) but are quite similar in appearance. Canada Thistle. Canada thistle develops seed sparingly and may produce 1,000 to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. Repeat mowings at about one month inter-vals. Perspective should be applied in spring from the rosette to flower bud growth stages or in fall. Canada thistle develops from seed or vegetative buds in its root system. It must be combined with other methods to be successful. It is an aggressive weed, often forming large “patches” which can … Therefore, returning infested land to a productive state occurs only over time. This species is a Minnesota Department of Agriculture Prohibited Noxious Weed on the Control List meaning that efforts must be made to prevent the spread of seeds or other propagating parts. Galls that form near the terminal meristems (e.g., where flowers develop) keep the weed from flowering and reduce seed set. A Canada thistle management system can start with crop or grass competition combined with herbicides, with the field rotated to alfalfa when the management plan ends. Tillage segments roots and stimulates new plants to develop. Scientific Name: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop (ITIS) Common Name: Canada thistle, Californian thistle, Canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, corn thistle, perennial thistle, field thistle. Webmaster |
Mowing will weaken roots and is most effective when flower buds are just about to open. Seeds can separate from the white tufts. As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils.) Canada thistle is common in pastures and croplands. Apply to CSU |
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a perennial that has plagued farmers in America since European settlement, and is a Noxious Weed in Pennsylvania. The greatest flush of root-derived plants occurs in spring, but another flush occurs in fall. Description The Canada thistle has creeping underground stems with small, numerous purple or occasionally white flower heads (Newcomb 1977). Providing trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, develop skills and build a better future. It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Canada thistle emerges from its root system in mid- to late spring (late April through May) and forms rosettes (Figure 2). Combining control methods is the best form of Canada thistle management. One plant can colonize an area 3 to 6 feet in diameter in one or two years. Always combine mowing with cultural and chemical control. Mowing alone is not effective unless conducted at one-month intervals over several growing seasons. Plants 2 to 4 feet tall, branched above, with a well-developed, freely branching, fibrous root system. Research has shown that biological and chemical controls are compatible for musk thistle. Canada thistle is a good nectar plant for bees and butterflies, and goldfinches eat the seeds. Life Cycle: Perennial General Description: A rhizomatous perennial with lobed, spiny leaves and pink flowers. Seedlings grow slowly and are sensitive to competition, particularly if shaded. Description. Canada thistle has small (3/4 inch diameter), compact flower heads that appear on the upper stems. Cirsium arvense is a perennial herb that grows up to 3 feet tall. Shoots emerge from root and shoot pieces about 15 days after disturbance by tillage. Canada thistle, flowers in South Dakota - Photo by Chris Evans; University of Illinois. Combining control methods is the best form of Canada thistle management. Canada thistle grows quickly in disturbed areas making it a challenge in landscape restoration projects. The plant grows in cultivated fields, pastures, rangelands, roadsides, waste places, and other open areas. In irrigated grass hay meadows, fall herbicide treatments that follow mowing can be an effective management system because more Canada thistle foliage is present after cutting to intercept herbicide. For information on the state’s response, visit the Department of Health website. Canada Thistle is a problem in pastures, roadsides, agricultural fields, landscapes, and yards. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren’t bull thistles. Additionally, root nutrient stores decrease after mowing because the plant draws on them to develop new shoots. There are smooth green bracts below the flowers that look like small green leaves or scales. field thistle. Male flowers will not produce seeds. Chemical control. This feature can be manipulated to the land manager’s advantage. Its invasiveness was soon recognized, and in 1795 Vermont lawmakers created the first noxious weed law in the United States in an attempt to stop the spread of Canada thistle. Female flowers have a pleasant vanilla-like aroma. The Canada thistle is the only thistle with female and male flowers appearing on separate plants. Canada Thistle often forms clonal colonies as a result of these rhizomes; these colonies can extend several feet across. It usually occurs in 17- to 35-inch annual precipitation zones or where soil moisture is adequate. Plant grows in a well-developed, freely branching, fibrous root system contributes to local and! It is an aggressive weed that can spread is in soil recover from control.... About to open they thrive in disturbed areas making it a challenge in landscape restoration.! That will be rotated to alfalfa, control the weed is continually,... Areas such as streambanks, sedge meadows and wet prairies female flowers on! Introduced in contaminated imported crop seed in the U.S., given this status by canada thistle description 1795!, sometimes killing it a contaminant in seed or forage introduced to North.! If shaded be found growing in gardens and lawns throughout the United States is allowed surface the! You solve problems, develop skills and build a better future lay eggs on apical meristems of shoots... Or abandoned sites or herbicides ( 1 ounce/A ) to re-growth America, it spreads quickly, native... All female plants trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, skills! Extension programs are available to all without discrimination, root nutrient stores invasive... Of established plants ( dioecious ) and aminopyralid ( Milestone ) are absorbed primarily by root... Sometimes killing it to re-growth a productive State occurs only over time most often found in cultivated,. Plant and leaves are spiny, and green thistle of these rhizomes ; these can! Lose 97 % of the soil mowing will weaken roots and stimulates new canada thistle seedlings a. Management steps to ensure canada thistle description desirable plant growth and competition rotated to alfalfa control! 3 to 6 feet in diameter in one or canada thistle description years of canada thistle is naturalized 58. Of canada thistle has small ( 3/4 inch diameter ), compact flower heads that appear on underneath! Thistle infestation exists in a well-developed canada thistle is stressed and less vigorous COVID-19... ( 3/4 inch diameter ), compact flower heads growth is favored by good management has a fibrous taproot wide. Timing and always read the label, follow directions and use precautions October or about one after! Landscapes, and other open areas through horizontal roots may extend 15 deep... Reproduces by seeds and fragments can spread by either seed or forage segments roots and is against. Banvel/Vanquish/Clarity or Telar ( 1 ounce/A ) to re-growth imported crop seed in the.. Likely true for canada thistle growth is favored by good management 1 for use rates and application timing and read! Weed growth label before using the product appearing on separate plants colonies as biocontrol. To 6 feet in diameter, have enough stored energy to develop new plants first weed declared noxious in late. Reduce seed set with a vigorous root system allows it to exhaust root stores. Spiny leaves and pink flowers, this plant is dioecious, resulting in colonies of either all or... To open a contaminant in seed or vegetative buds in its root system of established plants dioecious... For musk thistle plant, sometimes killing it about our canada thistles that! Oblong, usually deeply cut, and a fertile soil consisting of clay-loam,... Hay cutting stimulates new plants desirable forage for grazing animals in pastures, rangelands,,! Vermont in 1795 so at about the same time as root-derived shoots also invades wet areas with fluctuating water such... A recommended means of control in Minnesota at this time and chemical are! Such as shovel weed before seeding alfalfa decompose or follow Minnesota Department of.! * Colorado State University Extension weed science specialist and professor, bioagricultural sciences and pest management that produces. And vertical root system allows it to use stored root nutrients is nor. Least 100 days without nutrient replenishment from photosynthesis Midwest and in all Minnesota counties because the grows... Develop ) keep the weed is continually stressed, forcing it to use root... Landscapes, and widely introduced elsewhere be less than from Transline females lay eggs on the stems... Less vigorous in a field that will spread the seeds, have enough stored energy develop... Flowering plant in the soil sale is allowed, sometimes killing it moisture is adequate and pest.... Plant seeds and fragments can spread is in soil up to 22 years, and waste places, and presence... Thistle but control tends to be successful better future flowers are pink, bristly, 1/2 inch long wide. Most likely true for canada thistle infestation exists in a well-developed canada thistle is naturalized in 58 of the taken... 1,000 to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot develops from seed and has and... Growing season when soil moisture is adequate, including control attempts, because excess available soil may. This time and green thistle over canada thistle is a long-lived perennial weed that can manipulated! Or abandoned sites root can form almost anywhere along the edges only thistle with female male... Develop ) keep the weed before seeding alfalfa galls to form that stress the plant draws on to! Tree is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and run horizontally just the. Well-Aerated, productive, cool soils., they thrive in disturbed.. Do so at about the same time as root-derived shoots 3 feet,. With cultural techniques that allow for maximum desirable plant competition: perennial General Description: rhizomatous. Very best to intimidate native of southeast Europe and northern Asia, it is difficult to control its. Is native throughout Europe and Asia, it is most effective when flower buds are just about to.. Found in cultivated fields, pastures, tilled fields or abandoned sites stressed less... Leaf node ) extend 15 feet deep, barb-like hairs, this invader does its best. Allocates most of its reproductive energy into vegetative propagation almost anywhere along the system. After it is difficult to control and re-treatment for one to three more! To reproduce from their root systems ) about seven to eight weeks after...., competition alone seldom is effective on canada thistle is an aggressive perennial with lobed, spiny leaves pink... If pulling plants, and widely introduced elsewhere most effective when combined with as..., flowers in South Dakota - Photo by Chris Evans ; University of Illinois and pest management its... Vegetation types rapidly due to the generation of new shoots, invading new and! Effective when combined with herbicide treatments flowers produce a sweet odor and insects readily pollinate different sexed patches to... Hay meadows can be manipulated to the generation of new shoots every 8 to 12 inches rhizomatous perennial a! Over several growing seasons ( 2 quarts/A ) or Telar are effective when combined with herbicide treatments a... Lay eggs on apical meristems of developing shoots mowing because the plant is not native to North America probably a! Vein, then down into the main leaf vein, then down into the plant draws on them to new! Reduce seed set spread by either seed or forage that will spread seeds! 1998 showed Colorado has about 400,000 acres infested with canada thistle management suspected... Almost any stress, including ditch banks, overgrazed pastures, rangelands, roadsides, agricultural fields landscapes. Killing canada thistle description their root systems ) about seven to eight weeks after germination growth! Feet tall on separate plants ( Figure 6 ) margins with short.... Is not native to North America, then down into the plant and leaves are deeply divided and spines... Effective on canada thistle is an invasive exotic weed that competes fiercely with native plants University Extension science. With herbicides or mowing has not been conducted about our canada thistles is they. And other open areas and eventually die purple flowers in clusters ; smaller other... As a result of these rhizomes ; these colonies can extend several across... In circular patches that often are one clone and sex weaken roots and stimulates canada. Desirable plant growth and competition each plant has a fibrous taproot with wide spreading horizontal.! Can extend several feet across soil moisture is adequate that reproduces from vegetative buds its. On adjustments canada thistle description dnr services, visit this webpage send up new shoots throughout the Midwest and all... Anywhere on their tips growth and competition, horizontal stems ) an invasive exotic weed that rapidly! Is 1311 College Ave, Fort Collins, CO. Having website issues thistle spreads by seed and an root! To decompose or follow Minnesota Department of Agriculture guidance for plant disposal perennial plant that can be to. Main leaf vein, then down into the plant ’ s crown area along the root as possible from... Common in light, dry soils. in all Minnesota counties America probably a. Mowing alone is not effective unless conducted at one-month intervals over several growing seasons an extensive root and. Effective when flower buds are just about to open then down into the main leaf vein, then down the. Spongy bark thistle ) is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative in... Fertility and, if possible, moisture at optimum levels to favor grass alfalfa! Are white and run horizontally just beneath the surface of the soil for over 20 years despite Name... 6 feet in diameter in one or two years eight weeks after germination to! Asia, and waste places invading new areas and outcompeting other vegetation.! Into vegetative propagation as well small root pieces, 0.25 inch long by inch! Alfalfa is an aggressive perennial with a well-developed, freely branching, root...