In the last 12 million years the Southern Alps have been uplifted approximately 20 kilometres, however, as this has occurred more rain has been trapped by the mountains leading to more erosion. The Māori arrived in New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population density in the colder South Island. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. The Alpine fault is the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The way the waves are reflected and transmitted tells much about the rocks and structures near the fault. [13] Newer research carried out by the University of Otago and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation revised the dates of the pre-1717 earthquakes to between 1535 and 1596 (instead of 1620), 1374 and 1405 (instead of 1430), and 1064 and 1120 (instead of 1100). Type: Full-length Release date: November 11th, 2011 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet Songs; Lineup; Reviews; Additional notes; 1. Elisabeth, your guide, has a good knowledge of the Alpine Fault, and to be able to straddle 2 tectonic plates was a real moment to remember. Alpine d'occasion - s’il est impossible de dénicher une A 110 pour moins de 50 000 €, on peut s’offrir une A 310 ou une A 610 à partir de 20 000 €. A transform fault is a type of strike-slip fault at the boundary of two plates. Advisers: Sibson, R. Abstract: The section of the Alpine fault between the Cook and Karangarua Rivers provides further information on the structure of the fault zone. ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", 2003 – Fiordland, estimated magnitude = 7.1. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. Into the Night 05:10 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 2. It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. Faille nord-anatolienne. Three feature sets are delineated. Tremors continued almost continuously until midnight and sporadic strong aftershocks were felt for several days. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that broke away from the Gondwanan supercontinent about 83 million years ago. The Alpine fault is defined as the 650 km long feature that extends the length of the South Island. He is notable for his discovery of South Island's Alpine Fault. Exemples de décrochements senestres Tours are 2.5 hours, and require walking. There have been no major earthquakes on the main portion of it. The Alpine Fault quickly became accepted as a notable feature of the geology of New Zealand, and by 1948 was included on standard geological maps. Lateral displacements of this magnitude could not be explained by pre-plate tectonics geology and his ideas were not initially widely accepted until 1956. The work involves scientists from several disciplines working together, using different methods, such as: Using techniques like these, scientists such as Mark Yetton of the University of Canterbury have found out that major earthquakes happened on the central Alpine Fault in 1100, 1450, 1620 and 1717. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The Alpine Fault • Running about 600km up the spine of the South Island, the Alpine Fault is the on-land boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. These large earthquakes don’t happen very often – the last one was nearly 300 years ago. A transform (oceanic) or strike-slip (continental) fault is one where the relative motion is horizontal. Here the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a year. This news article from Stuff covers some research on the frequency of past earthquakes along the Alpine fault. What information is revealed? [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. This is not a regular pattern, but enough to suggest there is a high probability of a large earthquake in the next 50 years. You can pick out the line of the Alpine Fault on this satellite image of the South Island. Considering the Alpine Fault's large magnitude (M w ∼8.0) earthquakes, the presence of low-friction material at depth in this fault zone is unlikely and would present a mechanical paradox (Sutherland et al., 2000, 2007; Beavan et al., 1999; Norris and Cooper, 2000). [27] Researchers also planned to install long term equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the fault zone. I'll See You Soon 05:36 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 4. Le cisaillement sud armoricain [2] dans la partie sud du Massif armoricain. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. Famous examples of these include the San Andreas Fault of California, the Alpine Fault of New Zealand's south island, and the Anatolian Fault in Turkey [16] A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. Where will the next earthquake centred on the Alpine Fault begin? The surface rupture has extended into the north section of the fault as far as the Haupiri River area, which is 25 km northeast of the Alpine Fault junction with the Hope Fault. THE ALPINE FAULT ZONE For certain types of reports and certain structural problems, it is advisable to try to identify the Alpine Fault plane as accurately as possible and to fix its position in the field. The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. The Alpine Fault runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, and is one of the world’s major geological features. Hours Today: 9:30 AM - 6:00 PM . Exposures of the fault have been revealed in a recent slips at Havelock Creek. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. Vous vous demandez certainement où je veux en venir, et surtout quel est le rapport avec notre petite Alpined'essai. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. [1] [3], The Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary forms the Macquarie Fault Zone in the Puysegur Trench off the southwestern corner of the South Island and comes onshore as the Alpine Fault just north of Milford Sound. [6] [7] Also near the surface the fault can have multiple rupture zones. Scientists say that a similar earthquake could happen at any time as the interval since 1717 is longer than between the earlier events. Alpine Fault. The Wellington Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. The council's emergency management team has been working with Selwyn communities to get ready. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. Holes were drilled for explosives, and when the explosives were set off, a multi-channel seismograph recorded the seismic waves. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. Subject: Structural geology. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Alpine Fault quake expected NZASE article 2019 Scientists estimate a 30 percent likelihood in the next 50 years of a magnitude 8 or higher (M8+) earth- quake along 400km of the Alpine Fault, a strength about three times greater than the 7.8 Kaikoura quake in 2016. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. [10] So while earthquakes are an important part of Māori oral tradition, no stories have been passed down about South Island earthquakes. She is one of the leaders of the Deep Fault Drilling Project of New Zealand's Alpine Fault, and was a research scientist on the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project. This short documentary is included in the Iraena's Ashes Digipack. 1.1 Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault . The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. The Alpine Fault forms a "transform" boundary between the Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate. In addition, an earlier earthquake was identified to have occurred between 887 and 965. The moment magnitude of the earthquake has been estimated as 8.2, the most powerful recorded in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. Snow on the mountains of the Pacific plate contrasts with the lower land of the Australian plate. The Southern Alps had not yet formed and most of New Zealand was covered in water. This gave a mean recurrence rate of 291 years, plus or minus 23 years, down from the previously estimated rate of 329 years, plus or minus 26 years. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. The Clarence Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. The 1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake was a devastating magnitude 7.5 Mw earthquake that struck near the town of Waipukurau on 23 February 1863. In the new study, the interval between earthquakes ranged from 160 to 350 years and the probability of an earthquake occurring in the following 50 years was estimated at 29 per cent. We've known about the Alpine Fault for around 80 years. Whole forests that have grown back after an earthquake can be dated, too. This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. of the Alpine Fault R.M. [25], The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) was an attempt in 2014 to retrieve rock and fluid samples and make geophysical measurements inside the Alpine Fault zone at depth. Alpine climate, climate that is typical to higher altitudes; Alpine tundra, a type of natural region or biome; Alpine orogeny, in geology; Alpine Fault, a geological fault running nearly the entire length of New Zealand's South Island; Biology. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The sparsely settled region of the Southern Alps shook for four minutes. In New Zealand they are formed along the Alpine fault by earthquakes. The Alpine Fault then runs the length of the South Island just west of the Southern Alps to near Lewis Pass in the central northern section of the island. The fault mover 30mm a year! What are the challenges of putting a borehole into a fault? This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault's plane per year. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. [30] [31] One of the lead researchers said that it is likely to be globally unique. Type: Full-length Release date: November 11th, 2011 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet Songs; Lineup; Reviews; Additional notes; 1. Alpine Fault discography (all) Severance (2005) Fire at Will Records Sampler (2012) > Iraena's Ashes Alpine Fault. This displacement was inferred by Wellman due in part to the similarity of rocks in Southland and Nelson on either side of the Alpine Fault. This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). Preparing for an Alpine Fault earthquake. How will the next Alpine Fault earthquake compare to the M7.1 Darfield earthquake of 4 September 2010? Richard H. Sibson from the same university also used the Alpine Fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence. Science and technology. Scroll down to discover how! Project type: PGDipSci. [8]. New research from Victoria University of Wellington could prompt a shift in thinking about the South Island’s Alpine Fault. 25 Reviews 1 Q&A. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. If you want to do something different and have a passing interest in geology, then this is a ‘must do’ tour. This set of faults, which includes the Wairau Fault, the Hope Fault, the Awatere Fault, and the Clarence Fault, transfer displacement between the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi subduction zone to the north. [5] Then uplift slowly began as the plate motion became slightly oblique to the strike of the Alpine Fault. The geology of New Zealand is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate and Pacific Plates. Type: EP Release date: November 2005 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet A lot of research is being done to find out about earthquakes in the past (called palaeoseismology), as they may help indicate when to expect one in the future. At this point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough Fault System. During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. She then worked as a research associate professor in geology and associate dean (international) in the Division of Sciences at the University of Otago. See all hours. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. See this Interactive map of the Alpine Fault and links to a virtual field trip on the University of Otago Geology website. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[ clarification needed ] to its displacement. The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. [ clarification needed ] Most of the movement along the fault occurs in this zone. It had a maximum perceived intensity of VII (severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale. One indication that things have not always been quite so calm on the Alpine fault is the presence of a rock type called psuedotachylite, which is thought to form either during an earthquake or with a meteor impact. These had previously been determined to have occurred in approximately 1100, 1430, 1620 and 1717 CE, at intervals between 100 and 350 years. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. This PDF provides a summary from the West Coast Reginal Council on Alpine Fault research past and present, including details of Mark Yetton’s methods. Project Number: 430W1444 DISCLAIMER This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) exclusively for and under contract to West Coast Regional Council. [27] The DFDP was the second project to try to drill an active fault zone and return samples after the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. New Zealand's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent evolution have created a unique fossil record and modern ecology. [2] The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. Depuis le mois de juin, Alpine a diligenté trois nouvelles campagnes de rappel afin de corriger un potentiel défaut de fabrication sur l'Alpine A110. Fault Lines: Facts About Cracks in the Earth. dating trees buried by landslides using radiocarbon dating and tree growth rings (dendrochronology). The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. [2], The fault zone is exposed at numerous locations along the West Coast and typically comprises a 10-50 m wide fault gouge zone with pervasive hydrothermal alteration. New research has revealed that some of the West Coast is sandwiched between enormous offshore fault lines and the Alpine Fault. from M4 to M5) there is about a 30-fold increase in energy release. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by GNS Science, GNS Science accepts … On-fault earthquake timing in addition to the amount of dextral slip during major earthquakes was unknown along a 200-km-long section of the central Alpine Fault, while the amount of co-seismic hanging wall uplift was poorly known, prior to the present work. [14]. Virginia Toy is a New Zealand geologist who studies fault zones and earthquakes in New Zealand, Japan and Ecuador. ... Each type is the outcome of different forces pushing or pulling on the crust, causing rocks to slide up, down or past each other. – Historic earthquakes – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Catastrophic events in New Zealand coastal environments", "Videos show devastating impact across South Island if Alpine Fault ruptures", "Thousands to be evacuated, highways blocked for months when Alpine Fault ruptures", "South Island plan for the next Alpine Fault quake", "Buller District Council Lifelines Study (Alpine Fault Earthquake Scenario)", "Harold Wellman and the Alpine Fault of New Zealand", "Structure and distribution of fault rocks in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand", "Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand", "Drilling into an active earthquake fault in New Zealand", "Why are scientists drilling into the San Andreas fault? The 1848 Marlborough earthquake was a 7.5 earthquake that occurred at 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1848 and whose epicenter was in the Marlborough region of the South Island of New Zealand. Because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine Fault creeps without making large earthquakes. Type: Strike-slip fault: Movement: Dextral/convergent, east side up: Age: Miocene-Holocene: Orogeny: Kaikoura: The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. [32]. But this should not lead one to overlook the fact that the Alpine Fault, so recognised, may occur in a wide zone of intense faulting, slicing, and brecciation-the Alpine Fault Zone. The Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side. 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