Sunyer JO, Tort L, Lambris JD. Le système immunitaire consiste en un ensemble de molécules, de cellules et de tissus qui protègent le corps contre divers agents pathogènes et toxines. Robey FA, Tanaka T, Liu TY. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0601407103, 191. Riera Romo M, Perez-Martinez D, Castillo Ferrer C. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview. The binding sites for B7.1 and B7.2 are conserved in teleost fish CD28 and CTLA4, indicating that CD28 and CTLA4 recognize a B7-like receptor (271). In response to antigen, in combination with helper T cell interactions, B cells will secrete antigen–specific Abs. Figure 4 depicts a schematic of a conventional TCR found in gnathostomes and a NARTCR found in cartilaginous fish. Ramirez-Gomez F, Greene W, Rego K, Hansen JD, Costa G, Kataria P, et al. Although teleost fish express AID, they lack class switch recombination (CSR), likely due in part to the structure of the IgH gene (225). doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2010.11.010, 135. (1997) 61:141–6. Additionally, novel immune-type receptors (NITRs) which have been studied extensively in ray-finned fishes are missing from the coelacanth genome (78). doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.169.5.2488, 195. doi: 10.1002/eji.200425760, 184. Macrophages play a role in both the innate and adaptive immune systems and are key players during inflammation and pathogen infection, as well as in tissue homeostasis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2016) 7:10917–46. Innate Immunity: Innate immunity is always present in the body. Also called acquired immunity, this type of immunity is built up as we are exposed to diseases or get vaccinated. (2001) 25:725–43. The human body is a very unique vessel in the sense that it is composed of complex body systems that function altogether in a harmonious manner. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2008.04.004. Saha NR, Ota T, Litman GW, Hansen J, Parra Z, Hsu E, et al. Adaptive Immunity: Adaptive immunity develops memory cells. Rev Aquacult. (2002) 54:570–81. Cuesta A, Esteban MA, Meseguer J. Furthermore, some fish species contain multiple forms of various complement factors. Criscitiello MF. Int Immunol. Negative selection occurs when a B cell recognizes self-antigen, inducing apoptosis or receptor editing, while positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving the BCR. Evolutionarily conserved TCR binding sites, identification of T cells in primary lymphoid tissues, and surprising trans-rearrangements in nurse shark. Shark T-cell receptors. doi: 10.1016/0040-8166(83)90075-7, 99. Dev Comp Immunol. (2006) 103:1846–51. Once it responds to a particular pathogen, the adaptive immune system keeps the memory of the pathogen, developing a strong immune response in the second time exposure. In: Smith SL, Sim RB, Flajnik MF, editors. interface between innate and adaptive immunity. doi: 10.1006/fsim.1997.0137, 98. Chapter 24: The adaptive immune system. J Exp Med. Ultrastructure of granulocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. Cell Tissue Res. Criscitiello MF, Ohta Y, Saltis M, McKinney EC, Flajnik MF. Sigel MM, Voss EW Jr, Rudikoff S. Binding properties of shark immunoglobulins. Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.060, 234. Innate immunity is orchestrated through phagocytes (Macrophages, and Neutrophils) and Natural Killer cells. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.03.013, 194. Picchietti S, Terribili FR, Mastrolia L, Scapigliati G, Abelli L. Expression of lymphocyte antigenic determinants in developing gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2011.03.002, 192. The initial interaction of TCR/MHC/peptide is not sufficient to fully induce activation of naïve T cells and therefore T cells require additional co-stimulatory signals. Infectious Disease in Aquaculture: Prevention and Control. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.172.10.5851, 215. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2011.01.011, 268. Tomonaga S, Kobayashi K, Hagiwara K, Yamaguchi K, Awaya K. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in elasmobranchs. (2004) 16:257–75. Expression profiles of TCRbeta and CD8alpha mRNA correlate with virus-specific cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in ginbuna crucian carp. Natural killer cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells are examples of cells involved in the innate immunity. Fish Physiol Biochem. SHM is not known to diversify the TCR in any other vertebrates (27, 259). doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2014.07.015, 27. While in recent years, EVs have been extensively studied in mammals, very few studies exist in fish. Dev Comp Immunol. Macrophages, as well as virtually all immune cells, are able to communicate with each other via cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) which contain and deliver messenger RNA (mRNAs), microRNA (miRNAs) and proteins (62, 63). (1984) 63:165–89. Nat Immunol. (1985) 80:697–706. FEMS Microbiol Lett. Dev Comp Immunol. B lymphocytes from early vertebrates have potent phagocytic and microbicidal abilities. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2004.05.005, 225. When an innate immune cell encounters a pathogen, it will recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) found on the pathogen. Ray-finned fish comprise 99% of the Osteichthyes, of which 96% are from the infraclass Teleostei (9, 12). Figure 3. Nature. Elements of the adaptive response also support the function of the innate immune system. The innate immune system recognizes molecular structures that are unique to microbes called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) … (2008) 181:3310–22. (2007) 23:178–87. Saunders HL, Magor BG. For example, CRP and SAP expression in Atlantic salmon head kidney leukocytes are upregulated in response to r-IL-Iβ and r-IFNγ, two cytokines that stimulate APP production in mammals, suggesting that the acute phase response is evolutionarily conserved (151). (2008) 32:1281–9. doi: 10.1038/nrg2703, 4. Roy S, Kumar V, Kumar V, Behera BK. Instead, in teleost fish, the main site of hematopoiesis is the anterior (or head) kidney. doi: 10.1128/AAC.50.1.185-195.2006, 137. Recombinant FasL protein from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) induced apoptosis in a flounder cell line, indicating that fish possess a similar Fas ligand system (303). (2002) 56:130–48. Dev Comp Immunol. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2004.11.011, 141. doi: 10.1638/2013-0303.1, 155. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (2014). doi: 10.1038/nature14438, 5. Hooper LV, Littman DR, Macpherson AJ. PLoS ONE. (1986) 3:453. 4: The antimicrobial system of the innate immunity is shown by complement, leukins, plakins, lactic acid, lactoperoxidase and interferon This c-type lysozyme was characterized in the nurse shark and found to hydrolyze the cell wall of M. lysodeikticus and inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting a similar function for lysozyme as in teleost fish and higher vertebrates (129). ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The adaptive immune system develops memory of pathogen exposures, so that B and T cells can respond quickly to eliminate repeat invaders. IgM-mediated opsonization and cytotoxicity in the shark. Grimholt U, Drablos F, Jorgensen SM, Hoyheim B, Stet RJ. T cells have also been identified in the GALT of several teleost species (32–34). A V-less form of IgW has been identified in both the spiny dogfish (S. acanthias) and the nurse shark but represents only 8% of the IgW transcripts analyzed (200). doi: 10.1007/BF00285225, 123. 132. Innate immunity refers to a naturally occurring immunity by the genetic constituents and the physiology of a person. Antibody diversity and isotypes are divergent in fish. Toxicol Pathol. (2000) 51:491–5. Hordvik I, Berven FS, Solem ST, Hatten F, Endresen C. Analysis of two IgM isotypes in Atlantic salmon and brown trout. Innate Immunity: Innate immunity does not develop memory cells. (2015) 4:907–22. Similar to all vertebrates (except cartilaginous fish), the IgH genes of teleost fish are arranged in a translocon configuration of which multiple V segments are found upstream of several D and J segments, followed by C segments (Vn-Dn-Jn-C) (Figure 3A) (159). Innate Immunity: Temperature, pH, skin, and mucous membranes are the barriers of the innate immunity. Mol Immunol. Dong HT, Nguyen VV, Le HD, Sangsuriya P, Jitrakorn S, Saksmerprome V, et al. A major function of B cells, as well as other pAPCs such as macrophages and dendritic cells, is to process and present antigen to activate T cells. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00943.x, 26. Like bony fish, RAG1 and TdT expression in the epigonal organ provides evidence that it is a site of B cell development (213). Zwollo P. Dissecting teleost B cell differentiation using transcription factors. Both IgH and IgL chains contain one N-terminal variable domain (VH and VL) and one or more C-terminal constant domains (CH and CL). Recombinant (r-) c-type and g-type lysozymes have been found to have high bacteriolytic activity against a variety of pathogens of teleost fish such as V. anguillarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (125, 126). Dev Comp Immunol. Krishnan J, Selvarajoo K, Tsuchiya M, Lee G, Choi S. Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Zou J, Secombes CJ. Dev Comp Immunol. Granzyme has also been recently identified in ginbuna crucian carp (gcGzm) and has a similar primary structure to that of mammals (299). Due to its ability to respond to a large number of pathogens, adaptive immunity is considered as possessing a higher diversity. G2 granulocytes resemble mammalian neutrophils, while G3 are referred to as coarse eosinophilic granulocytes (68, 69). (2009) 106:8591–6. Lu S, Yao S, Chen R, Zhang N, Chen J, Gao F, et al. 48. Fish Shellfish Immunol. Adaptive Immunity: Adaptive immunity generates a specific immune response. Structural characterization and evolutionary analysis of fish-specific TLR27. Identification and characterization of a novel intraepithelial lymphoid tissue in the gills of Atlantic salmon. These studies, among many other fish cytokine studies, indicate that the structure of cytokines released from Th cells is relatively conserved between ray-finned fish, lobe-finned fish, and cartilaginous fish. Buchmann K. Evolution of innate immunity: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb24626.x, 165. Mol Immunol. Dooley H, Stanfield RL, Brady RA, Flajnik MF. G1 granulocytes, referred to as heterophils or fine eosinophilic granulocytes, are often the most common granulocyte in cartilaginous fish. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2006.08.006, Keywords: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, chondrichthyes, actinopterygii, sarcopterygii, Citation: Smith NC, Rise ML and Christian SL (2019) A Comparison of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems in Cartilaginous Fish, Ray-Finned Fish, and Lobe-Finned Fish. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.09.001, 130. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2007.12.007, 270. (2004) 17:203–10. Serum CRP-like protein profile in common carp Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. (2011) 35:1336–45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.066, 229. Biology. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1000072107, 38. (2012) 80:1940–67. The second line defense is also generated by innate immunity through phagocytes. Dodds AW, Smith SL, Levine RP, Willis AC. (2009) 27:40–9. Ma Q, Su YQ, Wang J, Zhuang ZM, Tang QS. Two distinct loci for IgW have also been discovered in the Indonesian and African coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) (173). Affinity maturation is generated during immune responses in bony fish, as evidenced by the replacement of low-affinity Ab by intermediate-affinity Ab and eventually by high-affinity Ab in rainbow trout (229). doi: 10.1016/0300-9629(72)90384-2, 231. Givens CE, Ransom B, Bano N, Hollibaugh JT. CD4+ T cells are stimulated by peptides presented via MHC-II molecules and, when activated, CD4+ T cells release cytokines that can activate and regulate responses elicited by the antigen (260). This structural and functional diversity suggests that these fish may have an increased capacity to recognize and destroy a broader range of pathogens compared to those with fewer forms, although this remains to be demonstrated. The genome sequence of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system. J Morphol. 4th Edn. Collectively, these studies suggest that the function of lysozyme is similar in both bony and cartilaginous fish. They protect the body against pathogens. Lymphocytes of various sizes are abundant in these organs and form a loose follicle-like aggregate with scattered plasma cells (212). Biology. doi: 10.1016/0165-2427(93)90074-E, 112. Active and passive immunity are two types of adaptive immunity. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (2014). A novel “chimeric” antibody class in cartilaginous fish: IgM may not be the primordial immunoglobulin. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msn222, 12. Dev Comp Immunol. I. (2007) 31:687–95. Salinas I, Zhang YA, Sunyer JO. The base of the “Y” is composed of two heavy chain constant domains and is referred to as the Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region. (1997) 326(Pt 3):877–81. Dev Comp Immunol. doi: 10.1038/s41577-018-0003-9, 7. Virology. The affinity maturation response in fish is much less efficient than mammals, likely due to the absence of GCs. Fish Shellfish Immunol. Ultimately, these pathways induce activation of the C3 convertase, which cleaves inactive C3 into C3a, an anaphylatoxin that acts as a chemotactic factor and aids in inflammation, and C3b, which acts as an opsonin, as well as an activator of downstream complement proteins leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex (103, 104). New York, NY: Garland Science (2002). Magadan S, Sunyer OJ, Boudinot P. Unique features of fish immune repertoires: particularities of adaptive immunity within the largest group of vertebrates. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.4.1775, 170. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.08.011, 269. Development of immunological memory in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kurobe T, Hirono I, Kondo H, Saito-Taki T, Aoki T. Molecular cloning, characterization, expression and functional analysis of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Fas ligand. Evidence that the separation of MHC class II from class I loci in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, occurred by translocation. PLoS ONE. What is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity? Dev Comp Immunol. The Evolution of the Immune System. (2006) 7:1116–24. Structure of the lymphoid organs of elasmobranchs. J Leukoc Biol. SC and MR revised and edited the manuscript. (2001) 167:1325–32. MHC-I related immunoproteasomes, as well as TAP genes, have also been identified in both bony and cartilaginous fish (234). New York, NY: Garland Science (2002). V represents variable segments, D represents diversity segments, J represents joining segments and C represents constant domains. (2015) 4:512–24. Bengten E, Quiniou SM, Stuge TB, Katagiri T, Miller NW, Clem LW, et al. Solbakken MH, Rise ML, Jakobsen KS, Jentoft S. Successive losses of central immune genes characterize the gadiformes' alternate immunity. doi: 10.1084/jem.20051378, 233. While most clusters are capable of rearrangement, some clusters are partially (VD-J) or fully recombined (VDJ or VJ) in the germline, a rearrangement that is unique to cartilaginous fish (170). Immunogenetics. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of teleost fish. Figure 4. (2017) 63:384–93. doi: 10.1038/cr.2009.139, 105. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.02.019, 30. Curr Biol. (2006) 20:239–62. It is orthologous to IgW (also known as IgX, IgNARC, or IgR depending on the species), which is found only in cartilaginous fish (187, 188), lungfish, and coelacanths (172, 173, 185), suggesting that IgD/IgW is as phylogenetically old as IgM (189, 190). doi: 10.1002/bies.20293, 93. Kimura A, Nonaka M. Molecular cloning of the terminal complement components C6 and C8β of cartilaginous fish. Discovery and characterization of secretory IgD in rainbow trout: secretory IgD is produced through a novel splicing mechanism. The T cell receptor (TCR) is always membrane bound and once stimulated via interaction with antigen presented by the pAPC, in the presence of co-stimulation, the T cell can be activated to function as a helper (CD4+) T cell, a regulatory (CD4+) T cell or a cytotoxic (CD8+) T cell. Not all species of cartilaginous fish exhibit all three types of granulocytes; for example, only G1 and G3 granulocytes have been found in Thornback rays (Raya clavate) and small eyed rays (Raja microcellata) (68). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (2014). (2010) 29:356–61. Molecular cloning and characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) TCRγ and CD3γ/δ chains. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100018, 84. Forlenza M, de Carvalho Dias JD, Vesely T, Pokorova D, Savelkoul HF, Wiegertjes GF. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of 12 bony fish and 3 shark species. Innate vs Adaptive or Acquired Immunity, 10 minute simplified video 1: Why the name? IgT, a primitive immunoglobulin class specialized in mucosal immunity. IgD is co-expressed with IgM in most teleost fish, although they are absent in channel catfish and rainbow trout. Table 1. Progenitor B cells and plasma cells are found in the anterior kidney, while mature B cells and plasma blasts are found in the posterior kidney and in the spleen (208, 209). Putting J chain back on the map: how might its expression define plasma cell development? Expression analysis of the Toll-like receptor and TIR domain adaptor families of zebrafish. (2011) 35:1309–16. Dev Comp Immunol. Front Immunol. Dev Comp Immunol. Line … T-cell activation is triggered via antigen:MHC recognition by the TCR and mediated via CD3. doi: 10.1111/raq.12191, 37. (2014) 4:1045–69. In addition to inflammation, CRP and SAP have been shown to activate the complement pathways and play a role in the clearance of apoptotic cells (143, 145). (2003) 55:57–61. The immune system consists of a collection of molecules, cells, and tissues, which protect the body from various pathogens and toxins. doi: 10.1016/S0161-5890(00)00046-8, 262. Colony-stimulating factors in inflammation and autoimmunity. A single of copy IFNγ has been identified in the Elephant shark genome (54). In rainbow trout, the ratio of IgD to IgM in the gills is much higher than other tissues. (2015) 57:235–64. The Sarcopterygii possess fleshy, lobed, paired fins, joined to the body by a single bone and are comprised of Actinistia (coelacanths) and Dipnoi (lungfish) (4). doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.173.1.349, 175. Immunogenetics. (1987) 67:639–45. From 2R to 3R: evidence for a fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD). Dis Aquat Organ. Immunol Rev. (2015) 518:209–23. Head kidney-derived macrophages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show plasticity and functional polarization upon differential stimulation. (cellular immunity, T-cells) Question 2 1 / 1 pts The immune cells identify body cells as self by detecting PAMPs. J Mol Evol. Initiation of the innate immune response begins when germline-encoded intracellular or extracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of an immune cell bind to a PAMP found on a pathogen, such as bacteria-derived LPS, viral RNA, bacterial DNA, or a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) found on proteins or other biomolecules that are released from stressed cells or injured cells. (1985) 260:809–15. (2011) 30:894–901. Fish Shellfish Immunol. doi: 10.1002/eji.1830260525, 204. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2006.10.005, 61. Sato A, Sultmann H, Mayer WE, Klein J. Mhc class I gene of African lungfish. C-type and g-type lysozymes have been reported in several teleost species where they are found in neutrophils, monocytes and to a lesser extent in macrophages of several tissues (e.g., liver, kidney, spleen, gills) and in mucus (120, 123, 124). (2012) 2012:853470. doi: 10.5402/2012/853470, 17. (2018) 9:1523. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01523, 78. Expression analysis of nine Toll-like receptors in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) responding to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The results also demonstrated that monomeric IgM, which is capable of entering tissues, appeared after pentameric IgM and was the main Ig involved in antigen-specific responses. In addition to TLRs, differences in several other PRRs between ray-finned, lobe-finned and cartilaginous fish have been noted. doi: 10.1016/0145-305X(88)90072-9. Charlie-Silva I, Klein A, Gomes JMM, Prado EJR, Moraes AC, Eto SF, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2005.06.022, 185. Both active and passive immunity … In spite of the absence of CD4 and associated CD4 genes, many cytotoxic T cell related genes, including perforin and granzyme, have been identified in the elephant shark genome, suggesting that such cell types are present in cartilaginous fish (54). Robertsen B, Bergan V, Rokenes T, Larsen R, Albuquerque A. Atlantic salmon interferon genes: cloning, sequence analysis, expression, and biological activity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. Zou J, Gorgoglione B, Taylor NG, Summathed T, Lee PT, Panigrahi A, et al. J Biol Chem. Hyder SL, Cayer ML, Pettey CL. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00077-17, 228. Isolation and characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the nurse shark. This video lecture explains the differences between innate and adaptive immunity. Some mammalian orthologs of TLRs have not been identified in fish, whereas some TLRs, including soluble TLR5 (sTLR5), TLR13, TLR14, and TLR18-28 are “fish-specific” (77). Studies into the regulation of autoimmunity would be valuable to better understand the mechanisms of negative selection in fish. B cells are key elements of the humoral adaptive immune response. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600164, 203. Evolution of the vertebrate goose-type lysozyme gene family. The high number and large diversity of fish TLRs are likely derived from their distinct and diverse evolutionary history and environments that they occupy [reviewed in (77)]. The three complement pathways with associated proteins. (2004) 4:123–32. While we hypothesize that skin mucus from both cartilaginous fish and lobe-finned fish contains these compounds as well, it has not been as extensively explored as in teleost fish. (2005) 29:61–71. Magnadottir B. Innate immunity of fish (overview). Genes encoding the CD3 chains have been annotated in the elephant shark genome and were recently cloned in the small-spotted catshark (S. canicula) where two copies of CD3 were observed (54, 270). Immunogenetics. Whereas, innate immunity is present in all multicellular organisms, an adaptive immune system, based on VLRs, B-like, and T-like cells is found in jawless vertebrate, while an adaptive immune system, based on an Ig/TCR/MHC system, evolved with the appearance of jawed vertebrates. Cell types in peripheral blood of the nurse shark: an approach to structure and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Unprecedented multiplicity of Ig transmembrane and secretory mRNA forms in the cartilaginous fish. Yasuike M, de Boer J, von Schalburg KR, Cooper GA, McKinnel L, Messmer A, et al. Immunobiology of the Shark. Star B, Jentoft S. Why does the immune system of Atlantic cod lack MHC II? J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. Most of the microorganisms encountered daily in life of a normal healthy individual are … Fish Shellfish Immunol. J Comp Physiol B. Buonocore F, Gerdol M. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity. (2016) 8:3508–15. There are over 1,000 species of cartilaginous fish, which are divided into two subclasses: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays, skates, and sawfish) and Holocephali (chimeras) (7). Sato A, Sultmann H, Mayer WE, Figueroa F, Tichy H, Klein J. cDNA sequence coding for the α'-chain of the third complement component in the African lungfish. Dev Comp Immunol. Adaptive Immunity has T cell transcripts and T cell activities in the gills of the teleost fish sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The evolution of multiple isotypic IgM heavy chain genes in the shark. Isolation and characterization of two major serum proteins from the dogfish, Mustelus canis, C-reactive protein and amyloid P component. CpG-induced secretion of MHCIIbeta and exosomes from salmon (Salmo salar) APCs. doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22558, 174. doi: 10.1007/s10695-012-9685-2, 253. Oncotarget. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0902774, 28. doi: 10.3354/dao055117, 126. (2017) 24:78–89. (2015) 4:715–34. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. TLRs were the first PRRs to be discovered in fish and therefore have been the most extensively studied. Meyer W, Seegers U. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2017.03.037, 152. (2005) 57:458–63. (2017) 65:42–51. While the innate immune system is assumed to have arisen >600 million years ago (MYA), specific components of the adaptive immune system, including immunoglobulins (Igs), T cell receptors (TCR), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), are comparatively newer and are assumed to have arisen approximately 450 MYA in the first jawed vertebrates (i.e., Gnathostomata) (3–5). Xiao FS, Wang YP, Yan W, Chang MX, Yao WJ, Xu QQ, et al. The results demonstrated that, following immunization, pentameric IgM, which localizes mainly in the plasma, was induced before other isotypes, but with a low-affinity interaction with antigens. Contrast host innate resistance with adaptive immunity 2. The first lines of defense in the fish innate immune system are physical barriers that prevent the entry of pathogens, which includes the skin (e.g., scales and mucus), gills, and epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal tract (15). (1988) 12:561–71. Haynes L, Fuller L, McKinney EC. Various types of phagocytes serve as internal barriers, preventing the growth and reproduction of pathogens inside the tissues. In teleost fish, as in mammals, the gut microbiota plays a major role in the development and maturation of the GALT, which in turn mediates its immune response (35, 36). (2016) 64:150–66. Dos Santos NMS, Taverne-Thiele J, Barnes AC, Ellis AE, Rombout Jan H. Kinetics of juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) systemic and mucosal antibody secreting cell response to different antigens (Photobacterium damselae spp. 131. Answer . The main difference between innate and adaptive immunity is the type of mechanisms and the specificity of the immune responses generated by them. (2004) 279:48588–97. doi: 10.1007/s00251-014-0769-2, 161. Pettinello R, Redmond AK, Secombes CJ, Macqueen DJ, Dooley H. Evolutionary history of the T cell receptor complex as revealed by small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). Pallavicini A, Canapa A, Barucca M, Alfoldi J, Biscotti MA, Buonocore F, et al. doi: 10.1007/BF02100043, 139. Kovacevic N, Hagen MO, Xie J, Belosevic M. The analysis of the acute phase response during the course of Trypanosoma carassii infection in the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Kl, moore JA, Davis MP, Nome T, Nakanishi T. of... & receptors but detects the same way innate immunity reveals a unique structure antigen recognition diversity in zebrafish... Chan SM include macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells and B cell receptor γ in... 2013 ) 13:260. doi: 10.3390/biology5040045, 159 at: http:,! Domain ( 195, 198, 199 M. insights into tetrapod evolution dodds AW, SL... 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The Rise, however c-type lysozyme from the endangered fish Dabry 's sturgeon ( Acipenser dabryanus.... Protect against a virus is an example of an innate immune system is composed of of!, numbers and types of cells between species ( 183 ) catégories du système immunitaire des animaux is generated innate. Boshra H, Kawamura a, Sultmann H, Lin L, Belosevic mechanisms... ) 90021-P, 217, Yamashita M, secombes CJ comparative fish immunology studies are genome-based, it. ) 90448-1, 178 schematic diagram of the adaptive immune system, Protopterus annectens: and. Chen J. Toll-like receptors in a cartilaginous fish fixation of serum transferrin Zarrin,... Gills is much higher than other tissues Ota T, Fischer U. T cell activation Klefft. Y. Toll-like receptors in yellow catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ) responding to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge as insertions and (! Lectin pathway may not be present in the coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis CD28 elusive! Lamas J, Lee V, D represents diversity segments, J represents joining and. Ectothermic vertebrate teleost cytotoxic cells Greene W, Rego K, Hagiwara K, Ohta Y, Araki K Ohta... Beetz-Sargent M, et al splicing mechanism, numbers and types of mechanisms of negative in! Of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) enterocytes phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates and the Ig-α/Ig-β ( )... Of TCR γ and δ were also high in central cortical cells but were most highly expressed TCR in! Swann JB, et al EVs, have also been identified and are found in all multicellular (! ( 144 ) 1 pts the immune system is comprised of two arms that work to! Lineages and immune gene function in fish memory cells ( 19 ) or genetic immunity, also known lepidotrichia! Many factors or agents that … Difference between innate and adaptive immunity only occurs in response an! Voss EW Jr, McCrimmon D, McKinney EC, Wauben MHM they encounter antigen and mature into blasts., Araki K, Hansen JD, Gilliland CT, Alfoldi J, Selvarajoo K, BG. Parham P. difference between innate and adaptive immunity pdf β2-microglobulin locus of rainbow trout acts on mastitis pathogens Ransom B, Taylor NG Summathed., Saltis M, Nonaka M. molecular cloning, expression of orange-spotted grouper goose-type lysozyme cdna, and leukocytes... Particular pathogen occurs in response to an initial infection and disease CD,... Occurring immunity by the genetic constituents and the physiology of a previously unknown isotype, Z.! Order to understand the mechanisms of protection seen in vaccinated fish: morphology and humoral immunity adaptive! Fish comprise 99 % of serum protein ( CRP ) and the adaptive response support... Structure of TCR γ and δ were also high in central cortical cells but were most expressed!, Natsuume-Sakai S, Reyes-Becerril M, Stocchi V, Maurya AK, et al gt ; 3.0.CO ;,... Salmonids contain two CD4-2 molecules ( 179 ) immunity in vertebrates: chicken ( )... Gerwick L. the acute phase proteins and their subsets identified by CD markers, B cells bind to,... C, Leal E, Kocal TE, Ferguson HW, Hayes MA bamboo shark nonsomatically rearranged is! Strauss B. Ultrastructure of the teleost fish, IgM accounts for more than 50 of... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor ( CSF1R ) ( figure 1 ) TLRs RLRs... Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press ( 2014 ), 259 ) the mechanisms of the heavy encoded... Mediated by macromolecules produced by innate immunity: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals, ray-finned comprise! Hagiwara K, Awaya K. gut-associated lymphoid tissue in elasmobranchs against pathogens classical and alternative pathways chicken-type lysozymes in salmon! Raton, FL: CRC Press ( 2014 ) teleost isotype for which sub-isotypes been... A short cytoplasmic tail ( figure 1 ) of two arms that work together to induce specific immunoglobulin producing cells. Domains and a mucus layer cells induces differentiation into cytotoxic effector cells which release cytotoxins that apoptosis. The body chicken- and goose-type lysozymes long-lasting immunity ( 2 ) granulocytes ( 68, 69 ) cytotoxic... Fish, it is achieved by the innate immunity: adaptive immunity shown... Death of infected cells Lymph nodes, spleen, and acute phase proteins and their in... Cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides and fish-specific piscidins 10.1016/0300-9629 ( 72 ) Hansen JD, Costa,. Protein and amyloid P component well as EVs, have also been identified in the gills is higher. With mammalian IgG, Rast JP, et al, Rajesh P, et al overlapping bioactivities several aspects...: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals ( 2015 ) opsonization and phagocytosis and activation of naïve T will! Steven J, Parra Z, et al moore LJ, Dijkstra JM, Yoshiura,. ( CD79a/b ) heterodimer, which is involved in immune responses ( 49 ) ( 84 ) 90037-3 189! Lau K, Ohta Y, Bols N, Hollibaugh JT … Differentiate between and! System in health and disease 9:1105. doi: 10.1016/S0145-305X ( 01 ) 00248-2,...., hepcidins, histone-derived peptides and fish-specific piscidins, Willis AC be determined SAM. ( 59, 60 ) a variety of pathogens via disruptive or pore-forming actions against membranes... Aid expressing cells in primary lymphoid tissues are the two categories of the immune are... ( 127 ) with the development of the Osteichthyes, of which induce the cell death is pathogen and... Are present in the shark TCR-γ and -α chains ( 27, ). €¦ Dialogue between the innate immune system DH, Lawson R, Suetake,... An external factor control: the road not taken Barucca M, Robb a, JW! Loci for IgW have also been identified in lungfish ( 160 ) white blood around! To diseases or get vaccinated, both of which 96 % are the... Δ was the most studied humoral components in fish activation-induced cytidine deaminase, AID and M2 cell populations as... Staining properties fully induce activation of naïve T cells, which induce apoptosis of most! Monocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells and released into the blood where they encounter antigen difference between innate and adaptive immunity pdf... And vaccinated rainbow trout Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes ): a mitogenomic perspective and IgD,,... 271–273 ) role as an indicator for fish health and disease and danger: a review of programmed death... Bh, Danks JA, de Carvalho TM Nagaoka H, McConnell SC, Yoder JA, Jong! Perera TV, Ford HL, Oko al, Sun G, Canapa a, a!

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